English Corner – Prepositions of Time

In other blog entries, we covered the general topic of ‘prepositions’ and then we broke it down even further by highlighting certain ‘prepositions of place.’ For this post, I am going to focus on the other half of prepositions which can be categorized as ‘prepositions of time.’ If you are able to master both prepositions of place and prepositions of time as an English student, you are going to do very well in terms of writing complete sentences that make grammatical sense and also improve your conversational skills. There are many prepositions of time similarly to how many prepositions of place there are but I am going to focus on the ones that will come up the most during your studies of this important grammatical topic.

I am going to focus on the five most popular prepositions of time starting with the three main ones known as ‘in, on, at’ which are also used as prepositions of place in different ways. As prepositions of time, ‘in, on, at’ are used in various ways and have different intended uses.

For example, the preposition ‘in’ can be used for describing months, seasons, years, decades, centuries, longer periods of time such as millennia as well.

Months – in March, in October

Seasons – in the Summer, in the Winter

Years – in 1991, in 2018

Decades – in the 2000s, in the 1960s

Centuries – in the 21st century

Unspecified Periods of Time – in the past, in the future

Below I have listed some example sentences where the preposition ‘in’ is being used in various ways associated with describing time.

  • My birthday is in October.
  • It is the hottest time of the year here in the summer.
  • In the 1960s, John F. Kennedy was President of the United States.

As you can see, the preposition of time ‘in’ can be used towards in the middle of the sentence but also at the beginning of a sentence as its first word especially when describing a decade.

When it comes to the preposition ‘on’, it can also be used in a number of ways. ‘On’ is specifically used for describing days of the weeks, part(s) of the day, specific dates, and special days such as anniversaries, birthdays, weddings, etc.

Days of the week – on Monday, on Saturday

Specific part(s) of the day – on Sunday afternoon, on Tuesday night

Specific date(s) – on December 31st, on April 1st

Special days – on our anniversary, on my birthday, on the wedding day

Here are some examples below of how the preposition ‘on’ can be used correctly according to its various usages related to the descriptions above:

  • On Friday evenings, I like to go to the movies with my girlfriend.
  • We went to the baseball game together on my birthday.
  • April Fools day is known to be on April 1st.

‘On’ can be used in various parts of the overall sentence and is not solely restricted to the beginning or end of a regular sentence. It’s important to note that ‘on’ is a preposition that is more specific in its purposes when compared to the preposition ‘in’ when it is used for time.

Next, we have the last preposition of time which could be considered one of the three musketeers of prepositions. ‘At’ has a variety of uses and is known for being the most specific of the three main prepositions of time. ‘At’ can be mainly used for describing times on the clock, festivals, holidays, and more general times of the day or night.

Times on the clock – at 5:30, at 4:15

Festivals / Holidays – at Christmas, at Thanksgiving

General times of the day – at night, at lunchtime

Listed below are some key examples to draw from when it comes to being able to use the preposition ‘at’ in the right context and with the right usage:

  • Chris gets out of his soccer practice at 5:00.
  • We get together as a family at Christmas time.
  • The couple likes to go out and dance Salsa at night.

Two additional prepositions of time to be aware of as an English student are ‘for’ and ‘during.’

‘For’ is a more specific preposition of time that is used to describe a length of time where an action or event is taking place. You use ‘for’ to discuss how long something or someone will be going on for with whatever kind of action that they are doing. Here are some examples to make it easier for you reading this post to master this preposition of time.

  • The volleyball tournament lasted for four hours total because there were so many teams competing.
  • The music festival lasted for three days and three nights since there were a lot of bands playing.

The 2nd additional preposition to be aware of is ‘during’ which is used as a preposition to discuss when something happens during a certain timeframe. It’s more general in terms of the timeframe when compared to ‘for’ but it can discuss an action that happened in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening or in the night. Here are some examples to help you with this very specific preposition of time:

  • The blizzard happened during the night and school was closed as a result.
  • During the summer drought, farmers had to conserve their use of water for their agriculture and cattle.

As you can see from these examples, ‘during’ is a more general preposition of time when compared to ‘for’ which discusses a specific timeframe in hours, days, or weeks.

Unfortunately, there are more than five prepositions of time but I believe from my experience that ‘in, at, on, for, during’ are the most common prepositions for this kind of usage. In addition, if you wish to know all of them, there are also other prepositions of time such as since, ago, before, past, to, from, until, by.’ I may have another blog post focused on these prepositions but the most important ones to know to get by in describing time accurately in the English language are in, on, at, for, during.

 Good luck with the prepositions of time and please leave a comment if you have any questions about this grammar topic.

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English Corner – Introduction to Basic Parts of Speech

When you’re first starting out with the English language, it is necessary to have an overview of the basic parts of speech. Each of these basic parts of speech play a critical role in developing your understanding of English vocabulary and grammar. In previous blog posts, I have already covered some of these parts of speech in-depth but I thought that it would be prudent to give an overview of each one and how they relate to one another.

There are eight basic parts of speech in total: Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Prepositions, Conjunction, and Interjection. I would argue that the noun is the most commonly used part of speech while the interjection is the least commonly used one. Pronouns, Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs are going to come up a lot in English with Prepositions and Conjunctions being less common but still important to know about.

1.) Noun: A word that describes a person, place, or thing. You can also name those things that can be seen or touched as well as those things that cannot be seen or touched. Nouns are present in 99% of sentences in the English language with very few exceptions which is why I have it as the #1 important part of speech to know. 

Examples
People: girls, boys, father
Places: library, garden, park
Things: trees, flowers, rocks
Ideas and actions: justice, liberty, democracy
Conditions and qualities: joy, illness, happiness

2.) Pronoun: A word that stands for nouns or for words that take the place of nouns. When it comes to pronouns, you’re referring to somebody or something indirectly whether it is he, she, or it. If you are referring to more than one person or thing, you would have to use the plural they, we, you in order to get your point across. Personal pronouns are also apart of this part of speech as they are also used regularly with him, her, etc. being very useful.

Examples:

Jonathan said he lost his bike yesterday.

Cynthia said that it is a very hot day today. 

Please let her know that we send our deepest thanks. 

3.) Verb: A word that expresses time while showing an action, a condition, or the fact that something exists. Any complete sentence will display or showcase a relevant action that will draw the reader’s attention to your writing. There are thousands of verbs in the English language but the most common are eat, drink, go, have, do, be, etc. 

Examples:

Writers write fictional stories in order to entertain their audience. 

Baseball players play the sport because they are passionate about it.

While millionaires have a lot of money to spend, they are not always happy about that.

4.) Adjective: A word that is used to describe a noun or give a noun or pronoun a specific meaning. The process of an adjective describing a word is modifying it to become more descriptive. Descriptive words help to give life to your sentence and make it stand out to the reader. Adjectives answer important questions about the details of a sentence such as:

-What kind?
– Which one?
– How many?
– How much?

Examples:

The newlywed couple lives in a beautiful house.

Thomas is a kind and caring teenager.

Martin’s family is very generous to the community.

5.) Adverb: A word that adds meaning to a sentence or modifies three different parts of speech such as a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. While not as common as the other parts of speech, adverbs are really useful when it comes to giving directions and providing needed details. One of the purposes of an adverb is to modify a verb and answer the question:

– Where? Fall below, Move aside, Step down
– When? Arrived today, Left early, Came late
– In what way? Happily ran, Will run abruptly
– To what extent? Partly understands, Dry completely, Fully accomplish

6.) Preposition: A word that relates to a noun or pronoun, which appears in relation to another part of speech in the sentence. These are usually small words but that carry a big impact in terms of forming the complete meaning of a sentence. It is vital to understand when and where different prepositions are used in order to not get confused about them. There are dozens of prepositions but I have listed below some of the most commonly used ones. Prepositions are one of the most important aspects of mastering English grammar.

While not its own part of speech, Compound Prepositions which are made up of more than one word are also important to memorize. Some examples include: According to, ahead of, because of, in place of, in regard to, prior to, out of. 

7.) Conjunction: A word that is used to connect other words or groups of words in a sentence. Conjunctions are essentially the glue that hold the sentences together with two related ideas being joined by words like and, because, for, or when, if, etc. Conjunctions usually come in the middle of a sentence but it is possible that they can come near the beginning of the sentence or towards the end as well. However, conjunction words rarely ever start the sentence or come at the very end of one. 

Examples

He is the chief of police and also is a part-time National Guardsman. 

This would be a good time for you to pull the lever. 

I would like that idea better if you backed up your claim with facts.

There are three main kinds of conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions, and subordinating conjunctions.

8.) Interjection: A word that expresses feeling or emotion; it functions independently of a sentence. Interjections are probably the most fun you can have in writing a sentence. You get to use fun, short words such as ah, ha, bravo, goodness, great, hurray, oh, oops, well, ugh, or whew which are all examples of words that express different feelings or emotions in the English language.

When it comes to where to place interjections within a sentence, there is a lot of flexibility about that. Usually, they come at the beginning or end of a sentence but it is up to the author entirely. Interjections are very important to use when writing dialogue for characters in a story or fictional novel. Interjections are the best part of speech to use in order to spice up your writing and make the reader engaged in the content. 

Examples:

Phew, I thought Mr. Jones was going to collect our Science homework today.”

Bravo! That performance by your orchestra was incredible tonight.”

Ugh…why did you go and lie to your parents? That was not a good idea.”

Overall, this is a good introduction to the eight parts of speech used in the English language. Over the next few weeks, you’ll see further posts that go more in depth about certain parts of speech that haven’t been covered yet such as adjectives and verbs. Until then, please be sure to use this blog post to improve your basic understanding of what parts of speech are and in which situations they are to be spoken or written. If you need to study the examples, please do so and I highly encourage readers to print out these notes to use in the future. Keep up the good work! 

English Corner – Prepositions of Place

In this ‘English Corner’ blog post, we are going to go deeper into the topic of prepositions, which we have covered previously but I want to highlight the specific ‘prepositions of place’ that are a large part of this expansive grammatical topic. The thing to keep in mind when reading this article is to focus mainly on the examples listed below to see how, when, and why these preposition words such as ‘at, on, and in’ are used. There are different reasons that are given when it comes to each of the ‘preposition of place’ words and how they end up being used in a sentence. Later on, I will highlight the ‘prepositions of time’ and how they are utilized when compared to the ‘prepositions of place.’

When it comes to ‘prepositions of place’, the main point of this type of prepositions is to show where something or someone is located, usually in a physical sense. The three major words that are ‘prepositions of place’ are ‘at, in, and on’, which also come up the most frequently in terms of usage. ‘At’ is used in a very specific manner in terms of being referred to for a specific location, place, or position.

Here are some examples where we can use ‘at’ as a ‘preposition of place’ in the right way:

  1. I was at Jonathan’s birthday party last night.
  2. We lived together at 8 Drury Lane for two years.
  3. They danced with each other for the first time at the Senior Prom.

When you use the prepositional word ‘on’, the meaning and usage for it is a little bit different than ‘at.’ For ‘on’, you’re going to use it to indicate the position of an object, thing, or person on a horizontal or vertical surface such as a desk, table, floor, etc.

Here are some examples of how we can the preposition ‘on’ in a sentence:

  1. The boy is playing on the playground.
  2. The basketball was bouncing on the court surface.
  3. I put my cowboy hat on the kitchen table.

Similarly to ‘at’, ‘on’ can also be used for positioning when it comes to streets, roads, and avenues.

Example: I used to live on Beacon Street.

The last major ‘preposition of place’ would have to be ‘in’ which is quite frequent in its’ usage. In terms of its’ meaning, the preposition ‘in’ is used for something or someone that is enclosed or surrounded.

Here are some examples of how we can use the preposition ‘in’ in a sentence:

  1. The check is in the mail.
  2. The letters are in the mailbox.
  3. She is in the high-speed train going home from work.

In addition to discussing enclosed or closed off places and spaces, the preposition ‘in’ can also refer to a position within a general area such as a town, city, country, region, country, continent, etc.

Example: I used to live in Istanbul, Turkey but now I live in London, England.

It’s important that the average English learner be made aware that there are many more prepositions of place besides the main ones, which are ‘at, in, on.’ There are many other prepositions of place words, and it would be an exhaustive list to go over the meaning and usage of each one. However, it would be better to highlight another couple of preposition of place words that come up frequently but not as often as ‘in, on, at.’ The other ‘preposition of place’ words would be after, among, behind, between, in front of, next to, beside, by, over, above, under, below, and beneath. Here are some examples of sentences that use these other preposition of place that were just mentioned above:

  1. The dog jumped over the wheelbarrow.
  2. He was hanging out by the pool on his off day from work.
  3. She checked under her bed to see if her pet gerbil was there.

There are dozens of examples that could be made with prepositions of place. However, it’s best to focus mainly on the particular prepositions of place such as ‘at, on, in’ and to understand clearly when, why, and how we use them correctly. While a sub-topic within ‘prepositions’, knowing what prepositions of place are and how to use them correctly in the grammatical sense will help you to become a better English learner and student.